Paper Presentation & Seminar Topics: Brain Controlled Car

Brain Controlled Car

Abstract : (Seminar) UNDERSTANDING HOW THE BRAIN WORKS:It's essential to understand the complexity of the manlike brain. The manlike mentality weighs only three pounds but is estimated to hit most 100 1000000000 cells. It is hornlike to intend a handle on a sort that large (or connections that small). Let's try to intend an discernment of this complexity by comparing it with something humans hit created--the whole sound grouping for the planet. If we took every the phones in the concern and every the wires (there are over four 1000000000 grouping on the planet), the sort of connections and the trillions of messages per day would NOT coequal the complexity or land of a single manlike brain. Now let's verify a \"small problem\"--break every sound in Newmarket and revilement every accommodate in the state. How daylong would it verify for the whole land (about 15 million people) to intend sound service back? A week, a month, or individual years? If you guessed individual years, you are today prototypal to wager the complexity of sick from a nous injury. In the warning I used, Newmarket residents would be without sound service patch the rest of the concern had sound service that worked fine. This is also true with grouping who hit a nous injury. Some parts of the mentality module impact dustlike patch others are in requirement of bushel or are slowly being reconnected.AN ELECTRICAL AND CHEMICAL MACHINE:Let's advise hunting at the building blocks of the brain. As previously stated, the mentality consists of most 100 1000000000 cells. Most of these cells are titled neurons. A neuron is essentially an on/off switch meet same the digit you use to control the lights in your home. It is either in a resting land (off) or it is shooting an electrical impulse downbound a accommodate (on). It has a radiophone body, a daylong little accommodate (the \"wire\" is titled an axon), and at the rattling modify it has a little conception that shoots out a chemical. This chemical goes across a gap (synapse) where it triggers another neuron to send a message. There are a aggregation of these neurons sending messages downbound a accommodate (axon). By the way, apiece of these zillions of axons is generating a small amount of electrical charge; this amount power has been estimated to coequal a 60 watt bulb. Doctors hit scholarly that measuring this electrical land crapper verify how the mentality is working. A device that measures electrical land in the mentality is titled an EEG (electroencephalograph).Each of the zillions of neurons \"spit out\" chemicals that causing another neurons. Different neurons use assorted types of chemicals. These chemicals are titled \"transmitters\" and are given obloquy same epinephrine, norepinephrine, or dopamine. Pretty simple, right? Well, no. Even in the simplified model that I'm presenting, it gets more complex.IS THE BRAIN ONE BIG COMPUTER?:Is the mentality same a bounteous sound grouping (because it has a aggregation of connections) or is it digit bounteous machine with ON or OFF states (like the zeros and ones in a computer)? Neither of the above is correct.Let's look at the mentality using a assorted model. Let's look at the mentality as an orchestra. In an orchestra, you hit assorted singable sections. There is a percussion section, a progress section, a woodwind section, and so on. Each has its own employ to do and must impact intimately with the another sections. When playing music, apiece country waits for the conductor. The conductor raises a baton and every the members of the orchestra begin playing at the same time playing on the same note. If the drum country hasn't been practicing, they don't play as well as the rest of the orchestra. The overall good of the penalization seems \"off\" or plays poorly at certain times. This is a meliorate model of how the mentality works. We utilised to conceive of the mentality as a bounteous computer, but it's really same jillions of little computers every employed together.GETTING INFORMATION IN AND OUT OF THE BRAIN:How does aggregation come into the brain? A aggregation of aggregation comes in through the spinal cloth at the humble of the brain. Think of a spinal cloth as a thick sound cable with thousands of sound lines. If you revilement that spinal cord, you won't be healthy to advise or feel anything in your body. Information goes OUT from the mentality to make embody parts (arms and legs) do their job. There is also a enthusiastic care of INCOMING aggregation (hot, cold, pain, joint sensation, etc.). Vision and chance do not go through the spinal cloth but go direct into the brain. That’s ground grouping crapper be completely paralyzed (unable to advise their blazonry and legs) but still wager and center with no problems.Information enters from the spinal cloth and comes up the region of the brain. It branches out same a tree and goes to the surface of the brain. The surface of the mentality is wear due to the color of the radiophone bodies (that's ground it's titled the wear matter). The wires or axons hit a coating on them that's colored albescent (called albescent matter).TWO BRAINS--LEFT AND RIGHT HEMISPHERE:We hit digit eyes, digit hands, and digit legs, so ground not digit brains? The mentality is divided in half, a correct and mitt hemisphere. The correct hemisphere does a assorted employ than the left. The correct hemisphere deals more with seeable activities and plays a role in swing things together. For example, it takes seeable information, puts it together, and says \"I recognize that--that's a chair,\" or \"that's a car\" or \"that's a house.\" It organizes or groups aggregation together. The mitt hemisphere tends to be the more analytical part; it analyzes aggregation collected by the right. It takes aggregation from the correct hemisphere and applies module to it. The correct hemisphere \"sees\" a house, but the mitt hemisphere says, \"Oh yeah, I undergo whose concern that is--it's Uncle Bob's house.\"So what happens if digit lateral of the mentality is injured? People who hit an injury to the correct lateral of the mentality \"don't place things together\" and fail to impact essential information. As a result, they often develop a \"denial syndrome\" and feature \"there's null wrong with me.\" For example, I treated a mortal with an injury to the correct lateral of the brain--specifically, the backwards conception of the correct mentality that deals with seeable information--and he forfeited half of his vision. Because the correct lateral of the mentality was injured, it unsuccessful to \"collect\" information, so the mentality did not realize that something was missing. Essentially, this mortal was blind on digit lateral but did not undergo it. What was scary was that this mortal had driven his automobile to my office. After sight the results of the tests that I gave him, I asked, \"Do you hit a aggregation of dents on the mitt lateral of your car?\" He was amazed that I magically knew this without sight his car. Unfortunately, I had to ask him not to intend until his problems got better. But you crapper wager how the correct lateral puts things together.The mitt lateral of the mentality deals more with module and helps to dissect aggregation given to the brain. If you injure the mitt lateral of the brain, you're aware that things aren't employed (the correct hemisphere is doing its job) but are unable to solve Byzantine problems or do a Byzantine activity. People with mitt hemisphere injuries run to be more depressed, hit more organizational problems, and hit problems using language.VISION--HOW WE SEE THINGS:Information from our eyes goes to areas at the rattling backwards of the brain. We've every seen cartoons where the rabbit gets hit on the nous and the rabbit sees stars. This crapper actually happen in manlike beings (trust me, not a good abstract to do at home!). If you verify a hornlike enough expiration to the backwards of the head, this mentality Atlantic bangs against backwards of your skull. This stimulates it and you crapper wager stars and flashing lights. Remember those digit hemispheres? Each hemisphere processes half the seeable information. Visual aggregation that we wager on the mitt gets computerized by the correct hemisphere. Information on the correct gets computerized by the mitt hemisphere. Remember, wires that alter in aggregation to the mentality are \"crossed\"--visual aggregation from the mitt goes to the correct brain.MOVEMENT:The Atlantic of the mentality that controls shitting is in a rattling narrowing strip that goes from near the top of the nous correct downbound along where your ear is located. It's titled the locomote strip. If I injure that area, I'll hit problems controlling half of my body. If I hit a attack in the mitt hemisphere of my brain, the correct lateral of the embody module kibosh working. If I hit an injury to my correct hemisphere in this area, the mitt lateral of my embody stops employed (remember, we hit digit brains). This is ground digit half of the grappling haw drop when a mortal has had a stroke.HEARING AND LANGUAGE:In the general population, 95 proportionality of grouping are right-handed, which means that the mitt hemisphere is the dominating hemisphere. (For you left-handers, the correct hemisphere is dominant.) With right-handed people, the ability to understand and impart module is in this mitt profane lobe. If I were to verify a metal probe, and calculate it with meet a bit of electricity, and place it on the \"primary\" Atlantic of my mitt profane lobe, I strength feature \"hey, I center a tone.\" If I advise this enquiry to a more Byzantine Atlantic of the profane lobe, I strength center a word being said. If I advise the electrical enquiry to an even more Byzantine area, I strength center the vocalise of somebody I recognize; \"I center Uncle Bob's voice.\" We hit ultimate areas of the profane lobe that care with basic sounds and another areas of the profane lobe that look at more Byzantine chance information.The correct profane lobe also deals with hearing. However, its employ is to impact singable aggregation or support in the identification of noises. If this Atlantic is damaged, we strength not be healthy to revalue penalization or be healthy to sing. Because we run to conceive and impart in terms of language, the mitt profane lobe is more grave for day-to-day functioning.The exteroception areas and the chance areas of the mentality hit a boundary Atlantic where they interact. This is the Atlantic of the mentality that does reading. We verify the seeable images and convert them into sounds. So if you injure this Atlantic (or it doesn't develop when you are rattling young), you intend something titled dyslexia. People who hit dyslexia hit problems that haw include sight letters backwards or hit problems discernment what written text mean.SKIN SENSATION:If something lands on my mitt hand, this aggregation module be transmitted to the correct lateral of my brain. It goes to the Atlantic of the mentality next to the Atlantic that deals with movement. The somatosense Atlantic of the mentality deals with physical sensation. Movement and feeling are intimately related, so it makes sense that they are next to apiece another in the brain. Because shitting and somatosense areas are settled close to apiece other, it is not exceptional for grouping with a mentality injuries to retrograde both shitting and feeling in parts of their body. Remember--tactile aggregation from the mitt lateral of the embody goes to the correct brain, meet same shitting and vision.FRONTAL LOBES--Planning, Organizing, Controlling:The biggest and most modern conception of the mentality is the adornment lobe. (It's titled the adornment lobe because it's in the face conception of brain.) One employ of the adornment lobe is planning. You hit belike heard of \"frontal lobotomies.\" At the invoke of the century, this surgery was finished on grouping who were rattling violent or who were in a psychiatric hospital because they were rattling agitated. Doctors utilised surgery to damage this Atlantic of the brain. Following this surgery, grouping became rattling passive and inferior violent. At first, scientists saw this as a enthusiastic thing. Neurosurgery could kibosh behavioral problems such as violence. The problem was that the patients obstructed doing a aggregation of another things. They didn't verify care of themselves and they obstructed many activities of daily living. They essentially sat there. In nous injury, individuals with adornment lobe impairment seem to lack motivation and hit travail doing whatever task that requires binary steps (e.g., sterilisation a automobile or thinking a meal). They hit problems with planning.The adornment lobe is also involved in organizing. For a aggregation of activities, we requirement to do travel A, then travel B, then travel C. We hit to do things in order. That's what the adornment lobes support us do. When the adornment lobe is injured, there is a breakdown in the ability to ordering and organize. A common warning is grouping who cook and yield out a travel in the sequence. They block to add an essential ingredient or they don't invoke the stove off. I've met a aggregation of patients who've burned or melted a aggregation of pans.
Additionally, the adornment lobes also play a rattling essential role in controlling emotions. Deep in the region of the mentality are sections that control emotions. They're rattling fraudulence emotions that care with hunger, aggression, and sexual drive. These areas send messages to another parts of the mentality to DO SOMETHING. If you're mad, hit something or someone. If you're hungry, grab something and take it. The adornment lobes \"manage\" emotions. In general, the adornment lobe has a NO or STOP function. If your emotions verify you to lick your boss, it's the adornment lobes that feature \"STOP or you are going to retrograde your job.\" People hit often said to me \"a little abstract module ordered me soured and I'm really mad.\" The adornment lobes unsuccessful to kibosh or invoke soured the emotional system.
On the another hand, we hit talked most how the adornment lobes organisation activities. The adornment lobes haw fail to organisation for whatever types of emotion. For example, sexual interest involves whatever level of thinking or preparation. Without this planning, there is a lack of sexual interest. A lack of thinking crapper also change the expression of anger. I've had whatever kinsfolk members feature \"You know, the nous injury actually improved him, he's not such a hot-head anymore.\" If you listen rattling carefully, you're also going to center \"he's not as impelled anymore.\" Remember, the adornment lobe plans activities as well as controls emotions.