Paper Presentation & Seminar Topics: Nanotechnology


Abstract : (seminar) A base definition: Nanotechnology is the engineering of useful systems at the molecular scale. This covers both underway work and concepts that are more advanced.
In its example sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the sticking ability to create items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools existence matured today to attain complete, broad action products.The Meaning of Nanotechnology.When K. Eric Drexler (right) popularized the articulate 'nanotechnology' in the 1980's, he was talking most antiquity machines on the bit of molecules, a some nanometers wide—motors, mechanism arms, and modify whole computers, farther smaller than a cell. Drexler spent the incoming decade eld describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of noesis fiction. Meanwhile, mundane profession was developing the ability to physique simple structures on a molecular scale. As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the message of the articulate shifted to include the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology. The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative was created to fund this kind of nanotech: their definition includes anything smaller than 100 nanometers with newborn properties.Much of the work existence finished today that carries the study 'nanotechnology' is not nanotechnology in the example message of the word. Nanotechnology, in its tralatitious sense, effectuation antiquity things from the bottom up, with atomic precision. This academic capability was envisioned as primeval as 1959 by the renowned physicist Richard Feynman.I poverty to physique a billion tiny factories, models of apiece other, which are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as farther as I crapper see, do not speak against the existence of maneuvering things corpuscle by atom. It is not an endeavor to break any laws; it is something, in principle, that crapper be done; but in practice, it has not been finished because we are likewise big. — Richard Feynman, philanthropist Prize winner in physics.Based on Feynman's vision of miniature factories using nanomachines to physique complex products, modern nanotechnology (sometimes referred to as molecular manufacturing) module attain ingest of positionally-controlled mechanochemistry guided by molecular organisation systems. Formulating a roadmap for utilization of this kind of nanotechnology is today an objective of a generally supported profession roadmap project led by Battelle (the trainer of several U.S. National Laboratories) and the Foresight Nanotech Institute.Shortly after this envisioned molecular machinery is created, it module result in a manufacturing revolution, probably causing nonindulgent disruption. It also has earnest economic, social, environmental, and expeditionary implications.Four Generations:Mihail (Mike) Roco of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described quaternary generations of nanotechnology utilization (see chart below). The underway era, as Roco depicts it, is that of passive nanostructures, materials designed to action digit task. The second phase, which we are meet entering, introduces active nanostructures for multitasking; for example, actuators, drug conveying devices, and sensors. The third generation is expected to begin aborning around 2010 and module feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. A some eld after that, the first integrated nanosystems, functional (according to Roco) such aforementioned a mammalian radiophone with hierarchic systems within systems, are expected to be developed.Some experts haw still implore that nanotechnology crapper refer to measurement or visualization at the bit of 1-100 nanometers, but a consensus seems to be forming around the intent (put nervy by the NNI's Mike Roco) that control and restructuring of matter at the nanoscale is a necessary element. CRN's definition is a bit more precise than that, but as work progresses finished the quaternary generations of nanotechnology leading up to molecular nanosystems, which module include molecular manufacturing, we conceive it module embellish progressively manifest that \"engineering of useful systems at the molecular scale\" is what nanotech is really every about.Conflicting Definitions:Unfortunately, inconsistent definitions of nanotechnology and blurry distinctions between significantly assorted fields hit complicated the effort to understand the differences and amend sensible, trenchant policy.The risks of today's nanoscale technologies (nanoparticle toxicity, etc.) cannot be treated the aforementioned as the risks of longer-term molecular manufacturing (economic disruption, unstable arms race, etc.). It is a mistake to put them together in digit basket for contract consideration—each is important to address, but they substance assorted problems and module require assorted solutions. As used today, the term nanotechnology usually refers to a broad assemblage of mostly disconnected fields. Essentially, anything sufficiently small and interesting crapper be called nanotechnology. Much of it is harmless. For the rest, such of the alteration is of old and limited quality. But as we module see, molecular manufacturing module alter unfamiliar risks and newborn classes of problems.General-Purpose Technology:Nanotechnology is sometimes referred to as a general-purpose technology. That's because in its modern modify it module hit significant effect on almost every industries and every areas of society. It module substance better built, individual lasting, cleaner, safer, and smarter products for the home, for communications, for medicine, for transportation, for agriculture, and for business in general.Imagine a medical device that travels finished the human embody to seek discover and destroy small clusters of cancerous cells before they crapper spread. Or a incase no larger than a sugar block that contains the whole contents of the Library of Congress. Or materials such lighter than poise that possess decade nowadays as such strength. — U.S. National Science Foundation.Dual-Use Technology:Like energy or computers before it, nanotech module substance greatly improved efficiency in almost every characteristic of life. But as a general-purpose technology, it module be dual-use, message it module hit some commercial uses and it also module hit some expeditionary uses—making farther more powerful weapons and tools of surveillance. Thus it represents not exclusive wonderful benefits for humanity, but also demise risks. A key discernment of nanotechnology is that it offers not meet better products, but a vastly improved manufacturing process. A machine crapper attain copies of accumulation files—essentially as some copies as you poverty at little or no cost. It haw be exclusive a matter of instance until the antiquity of products becomes as cheap as the copying of files. That's the real message of nanotechnology, and ground it is sometimes seen as \"the incoming industrial revolution.My possess judgment is that the nanotechnology turning has the possibleness to change USA on a bit equal to, if not greater than, the machine revolution. — U.S. Senator Ron Wyden (D-Ore.)The noesis of nanotechnology crapper be encapsulated in an apparently simple device called a personal nanofactory that haw set on your countertop or desktop. Packed with miniature chemical processors, computing, and robotics, it module produce a wide-range of items quickly, cleanly, and inexpensively, antiquity products directly from blueprints.Artist's Conception of a Personal Nanofactory
Courtesy of John Burch, Lizard Fire Studios (3D Animation, Game Development).Exponential Proliferation:Nanotechnology not exclusive module allow making some high-quality products at very low cost, but it module allow making newborn nanofactories at the aforementioned low outlay and at the aforementioned rapid speed. This unequalled (outside of biology, that is) ability to make its possess effectuation of creation is ground nanotech is said to be an exponential technology. It represents a manufacturing grouping that module be healthy to attain more manufacturing systems—factories that crapper physique factories—rapidly, cheaply, and cleanly. The effectuation of creation module be healthy to make exponentially, so in meet a some weeks a some nanofactories conceivably could embellish billions. It is a revolutionary, transformative, powerful, and potentially very dangerous—or beneficial—technology. How presently module every this become about? Conservative estimates usually feature 20 to 30 eld from now, or modify such later than that. However, CRN is concerned that it haw occur sooner, quite possibly within the incoming decade. This is because of the rapid advancement existence made in sanctioning technologies, such as optics, nanolithography, mechanochemistry and 3D prototyping. If it does arrive that soon, we haw not be adequately prepared, and the consequences could be severe. We believe it's not likewise primeval to begin asking some tough questions and facing the issues:Who module possess the technology? Will it be heavily restricted, or widely available? What module it do to the notch between rich and poor? How crapper chanceful weapons be controlled, and perilous arms races be prevented? Many of these questions were first raised over a decade ago, and hit not still been answered. If the questions are not answered with deliberation, answers module evolve independently and module take us by surprise; the assail is likely to be unpleasant. It is difficult to feature for sure how presently this profession module mature, partly because it's possible (especially in countries that do not hit open societies) that surreptitious expeditionary or industrial utilization programs hit been going on for eld without our knowledge. We cannot feature with certainty that full-scale nanotechnology module not be matured with the incoming decade years, or modify five years. It haw take individual than that, but prudence—and possibly our survival—demands that we prepare today for the earliest pat utilization scenario.